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Oct 25, 2015

SM Service Module (Part 10, Apollo Control Systems)

Apollo Service Module (SM) was an important part of the Apollo Command/Service Module (CSM). Nowadays also the new SM which is connected to the Orion capsule is called a service module. Actually Europeans are just now building one (2015).


North American Aviation logo

Apollo Command / Service Module was built by North American Aviation.

James Howard "Dutch" Kindelberger

James Howard "Dutch" Kindelberger was an American aviation pioneer, a leader of North American Aviation in 1934-60.

Oct 20, 2015

LEAMOR Mars Mission - Entry and Return Vehicles (Part 4)

PART 4: Entry and Return Vehicles

Why to have separated Entry and Return Vehicles (EV and RV) for the mission. Basically separating them makes it possible to divide the required consumables and propellants to two smaller amounts. And the one without the astronauts could then be sent using lower speed and less propellant expensive routes. Additionally two return capable vehicles in the LMO add to the safety of the astronauts. If one of the vehicles is broken the other one hopefully still is usable.

Return or Entry Vehicle without the Habitat Module (HM). Service Module (SM) to the left and the Orion re-entry capsule to the right.

Oct 18, 2015

LEAMOR Manned Space Craft - Modular Transport Engine (Part 3)

PART 3: Modular Transport Engine (TE)

LEAMOR stabnds for Light Extended Apollo Mars Orbit Rendezvous.

As we already have figured out that the large spacecraft must be modular (since the lift vehicle can only lift a certain amount to the LEO at one time). See the previous part of this article series and we call these about 150 ton (lbs) building blocks as L-modules.

L-Modules about 150 000 lbs each, size about D5 x L11.75

Oct 16, 2015

LEAMOR Manned Mars Mission - Why Modular? (Part 2)

PART 2: Why the Manned Mars Mission Must be Modular?

Simply because the launch vehicle can only lift a certain amount at any time - and that size or mass will be the maximum module size - and the only way to get larger masses and structures is to bolt them together in the low Earth's orbit (LEO).

LEAMOR stabnds for Light Extended Apollo Mars Orbit Rendezvous.

SLS can lift about 150 .. 300 tons (lbs) to LEO

Oct 15, 2015

LEAMOR Mission - Light Extended Apollo Mars Orbit Rendezvous (Part 1)


How to land a man on the Mars and return him safely to the Earth

It looks like the main problem is NOT that we couldn't do it but that we maybe need more time and/or money for it?

I represent here a simple LEAMOR mission plan to Mars and back which just extends the Apollo missions and tries not to do anything more in the first phase than just to get a man on the Mars and return him safely to the Earth. LEAMOR stands for Light Extended Apollo Mars Orbit Rendezvous. (See also LOR).

The following picture shows the basic Mars mission phases.

Typical Mars mission and its main events.

Oct 11, 2015

Delta-V Calculator (The Rocket Equation)

Delta-V Calculator

Before burn (Rocket mass
incl. fuel m1)
After burn (Rocket mass
excl. fuel m2)
Vex or Isp exhaust velocity
specific impulse
Delta-V change in velocity
= Vex*ln(m1/m2)

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Oct 7, 2015

520 Day Mars Mission Simulation by ESA Yields OK


As you already might know there are basically two types of low energy trips to Mars:: the Short Stay Mission (SSM) and the Long Stay Mission (LSM).

Long-Stay Mission (LSM)