Link to the Airbus A400M site:
Is the autopilot insulting the pilots when an airplane lands? Press the play button below to listen the sound of an Airbus A320 during the round out and flare:
Whenever I'm sitting in first class on an Airbus, I hear the computer call out the altitude just before landing. I also hear it say "Retard". What exactly does that mean? I thought it must be the signal to deploy spoilers and reverse thrust.
No, it's nothing to do with the spoilers or reverse thrust. The word "retard" is a reminder to pilots to bring the thrust levers to idle during the landing maneuver, known as the "flare," just prior to touchdown. If the autothrottles are engaged, which they are most of the time on highly-automated aircraft such as the Airbus, the thrust will go to idle on its own just prior to touchdown on landing.
By the way, there is another theory that the word "retard' is said by the airplane to pilots as an insult by a French airplane to Americans who fly it, but it's conceivable our imaginations may be a tad too active. C'est la vie!""
Here is more about autoland procedures:
(BTW: Do NOT click "Back to Table of Contents" on the bottom of that page since there is strange html code on those pages. What ever the linked page was ok.)
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There is a nice composite materials handbook, "R&G Handbuch Edition 06/2009, Composite Materials Handbook" (both in english and germany) available free on the network at the following address:
There starting page 80 you can find instructions how to estimate the airplane structures roughly:
Wing Spar Cutaway
"The simpliied example given shows how preliminary dimensions can be roughly calculated for fibre composite components. The values are based on material characteristics encountered in glider construction. Exact dimensioning may necessitate determining the material characteristics from case to case, which vary depending on the manufacturing method."
It is clear that after few generations the future moon man will adopt to the lower moon gravity (1/6 of earth's gravity). Here is a picture of such a person compared to the earthling.
After few generations on the moon, it is very much possible that the moon man is not able to walk on the earth any more, since he needs more muscles and stronger bones to do that. Maybe the moon should be a place where people should only visit maximum few years at a time and then return to the earth. Moon would be a great place for tourists that seek extreme sports and exotic places.
|Boeing 767 Inboard Ailerons|