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Nov 26, 2011

What flaps can do?

Some videos about what flaps can do and how much the zero lift angle of attack moves when using them.

BTW: These full span flaps look very much like those patented 1952 by Youngmann. See more in the following link:

And here is a diagram about what flaps can usually do for the lift coefficient. Using for example type (7) configuration the wing is generating 2.4 time more lift than the wing alone and 1.4 times more than the plain flap (2) alone. The reduction of the wing size (and drag) is proportional to that although the less clean wing adds some drag but we have to remember that most designs can not benefit so much about the cleanness of the wing. /1/

From Loftin, NASA Sp 468, 1985
Typical values of airfoil maximum lift coefficient for various types of high-lift devices: (1) airfoil only, (2) plain flap, (3) split flap, (4) leading-edge slat, (5) single-slotted flap, (6) double-slotted flap, (7) double-slotted flap in combination with a leading-edge slat, (8) addition of boundary-layer suction at the top of the airfoil.



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Nov 20, 2011

Form, Lift, Drag and Propulsion

Some videos from the University of Iowa: /1/

"In the fifth video of the series, emphasis is laid upon the role of boundary-layer separation in modifying the flow pattern and producing longitudinal and lateral components of force on a moving body. Various conditions of separation and methods of separation control are first illustrated. Attention is then given to the distribution of pressure around typical body profiles and its relation to the resulting drag. The concept of circulation introduced in the second film is developed to explain the forces on rotating bodies and the forced vibration of cylin dri cal bodies. Structural failure of unstable sections is demonstrated."

"Introduction to the timeless educational series by brilliant German aeronautical engineer Dr. Alexander Lippisch, explaining the phenomena and physics of of flight in an understandable and engaging manner. Produced in 1955 by the University of Iowa."



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Nov 18, 2011

What plane?

This picture was in a magazine taken before 1927. The question was what is the plane with that strange over the wing motor installation?

Since it is a monoplane before 1927 and the guy (pilot) smoking on the right looks very much like Anthony Fokker it must be some prototype of the Fokker F VII. Here are some additional pictures and videos of the F VII model.

On the left Anthony Fokker sitting in a cockpit frame

Last flight of a Fokker F.VIIa

Fokker F.VII was also the first airplane to fly over the north pole.

See also:

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Nov 17, 2011

Ray Hopper and Dave Grant, Spruce Goose Designers Interview

Ray Hopper and Dave Grant were designers and engineers of the Howard Hughes flying boat Spruce Goose. Here is an interview of them in 6 parts.

[Sorry to say but as of 2014 the videos have been deleted in YouTube .. as so many other videos there .. but that original film might be somewhere archived if you search TV film archives in the USA. Below is a small snippet of it which I could find.]

Some pictures about the Howard Hughes HK-1 (H-4) Hercules ("Spruce Goose").




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Nov 16, 2011

A Wooden Wing Failure in 1931 (TWA Flight 599)

Fokker F.10A Trimotor

Early wooden wings had some mishaps which promoted the use of the (at that time) new full aluminium wing. Here is the story of the Fokker F.10 (TWA Flight 599) as told in the Popular Mechanics, Dec., 1971. Not only did the wooden wings have problems, also two Lockheed Electras crashed in 1959 and 1960 due to flutter in the now fully aluminium wing.

These planes were built in America by the Fokker Aircraft Corporation and not in Europe as one might believe when Fokker name is mentioned. /2/

"The weather was inauspicious. So much so that Anthony Fokker would later angrily argue that the flight should never have gone ahead." /4/

March 31, 1931 - Bazzar, Kansas , Fooker 10A Trimotor , Trans Continental and Western Air flight number 599.

"Heathman, who was 13 years old at the time he discovered the plane crash with his father on March 31, 1931, was the last living witness to the plane crash." /3/

Video about Fokker F.10

"Fokker Trimotors were manufactured out of wood laminate; in this instance, moisture had leaked into the interior of one wing over a period of time and had weakened the glue bonding the structural members (called struts or spars) that prevented the wing from fluttering in flight. One spar finally failed; the wing developed uncontrolled flutter and separated from the aircraft." /1/

Anthony Fokker (center) in the F.10A (Image: Dutch Aviation)

So to say that sensitive wooden structures should be protected against moisture also inside and tested agains flutter (and go around bad weather).



/2/ Popular Mechanics, Dec. 1971



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Nov 7, 2011

Composite Construction Techniques

Some YouTube videos about composite airplane manufacturing:

Some one time methods:

Some mold making ideas:

And some videos about using those molds:

Here are the vacuum bagging steps again. In the video they vacuum bagged it twice; once before the honeycomp was laid and second time with all layers.

  • 0 - Mold (see separate videos for mold making)
  • 1 - 4 layers carbon
  • 1.1 - 0 layer
  • 1.2 - 45 layer
  • 1.3 - 45 layer
  • 1.4 - 0 layer
  • 2 - peel-ply
  • 3 - breather/bleeder
  • 4 - bagging film + vacuum
  • 5 - honeycomp
  • 6 - 3 layers carbon
  • 6.1 - 0 layer
  • 6.2 - 45 layer
  • 6.3 - 0 layer
  • 7 - peel-ply
  • 8 - breather/bleeder
  • 9 - bagging film + vacuum
("Molds should have at least 3 times more layers than parts to be pulled out of them.")

The following video from the same source is also very informative (in 8 parts).

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